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Issues 151-latest

All back issues of After the Battle are available. Select the range, i.e. Issues 1-25, to show the contents of each magazine and then click on the cover to order in our online store.

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Issue 151

ISSUE No. 151 (Code A151) — Now with Colour Comparisons

FIRST MANNED ROCKET LAUNCH - Jean Paul Pallud gives a fascinating insight into the development of the first manned rocket produced by Dipl.Ing. Erich Bachem. The Birchington Mine -On August 3, 1940, a parachute mine was reported to have come down on land at Shuart Farm near the north Kent coast. Chris Ransted tells us the full story. The US 'Rosie the Riveter' Memorial - David Mitchelhill-Green tells the story of the women who became known as 'Rosies' for their remarkable efforts to the US shipbuilding industry during WWII. German War Graves in Britain - Andy Saunders and Joe Potter describe the work involved in identifying former missing German airmen in the United Kingdom. HM Prison Pentonville During World War II - In this story we tell how Pentonville Prison was hit and damaged several times during raids on London. The Empire Air Training Scheme in Canada - Three and a half months after the outbreak of the Second World War, a group of men gathered in the office of Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King for the signing of an 'Agreement Relating to the Training of Pilots and Aircrews in Canada'. Clarence Simonsen tells the full story.

Issue 152

ISSUE No. 152 (Code A152) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE LIBERATION OF ROME - Marco Marzilli tells the story of the German seizure of Rome in 1943 following the Armistice between Italy and the Allies during a remarkable 24 hour period (September 8-9) of the war. The Allied Liberation of Rome 1944 - Following from the previous story, Karel Margry tells us how on June 4, 1944, nine months after the Germans had seized Rome, forces of the US Fifth Army liberated the Italian capital. German Prisoners in Normandy - Edward Storey explains the fascinating story behind a rare series of colour photographs of German prisoners of war captured in Normandy. Guarding the Golden Gate - David Mitchelhill-Green tells us the story of the 16-inch guns put in place to protect San Francisco Bay, and how they were never fired in anger and what has since become of them.

Issue 153

ISSUE No. 153 (Code A153) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE RAID ON ROMMEL'S HEADQUARTERS - Jean Paul Pallud tells how on the night of November 14/15, 1941 a British raiding party of 30 commandos led by Lieutenant-Colonel Geoffrey Keyes landed on the shores of Libya. Their mission being to attack a house in the town of Beda Littoria thought to be the headquarters of Generalleutnant Erwin Rommel, the famed commander of the German Afrikakorps. Wolfsschanze Revisited - One of our long-time readers, Allan Adams from Ottawa, Canada, has recently made two visits to the former Führerhauptquartier and produced a good photographic record of its present condition. We present Allan's story as a follow-up to our story in issue 19 and also as a tribute to the groundbreaking research done by the late Dr. Raiber who died in March 2002. Pershing versus Tiger at Elsdorf - Willi Weiss tells us how on the evening of February 26, 1945, at the small German town of Elsdorf, west of Cologne, a German Tiger tank knocked out an American T26E3 Pershing tank. A newly developed type of heavy tank armed with a powerful 90mm gun — one of the first batch of 20 that was hurriedly rushed to the European Theater of Opertions and committed on the front of the US First Army to see action before the end of the war. Australia's Worst Air Disaster - On June 14, 1943, a Boeing B-17C crashed at Bakers Creek near the coastal town of Mackay in eastern Queensland, Australia. The entire crew of six and all but one of the 35 passengers — all US servicemen returning to Port Moresby in New Guinea after furlough — perished in the crash, the cause of which has never been established with certainty. David Mitchelhill-Green tells us how to this day it remains Australia's worst ever air disaster. Waldhaus Häcklingen - Karel Margry tells us how on May 3, 1945, a small estate just outside the village of Häcklingen near Lüneburg in northern Germany was the venue of talks between Lieutenant-General Miles C. Dempsey, the commander of the British Second Army, and a delegation of German officers who had come to negotiate on the one hand the surrender of the city of Hamburg and on the other the general capitulation of all German forces in northern Germany.

Issue 154

ISSUE No. 154 (Code A154) — Now with Colour Comparisons

HELIGOLAND - Chris Ransted takes us through the history of this remarkable Island and explains how it was a chief naval strongpoint for Germany in both the First and Second World Wars. The Allied Capture of Frankfurt - On March 27, 1945, after a short but intense two-day battle, troops of the US Third Army captured the German city of Frankfurt-am-Main. Karel Margry takes us through the story of this hard-fought battle. James Arness - Editor-in-Chief of After the Battle, Winston Ramsey, has put together an obituary for this screen legend and war hero who sadly passed away in 2011.

Issue 155

ISSUE No. 155 (Code A155) — Now with Colour Comparisons

ATHENS, DECEMBER 1944 - In December 1944, the British liberation forces in Greece found themselves involved involuntarily in the violence and hatred of the Greek Civil War when they became the target of the Communist-controlled guerrilla forces of EAM/ELAS. Karel Margry describes the situation. From the Editor - A round-up and update on previous stories from After the Battle. The Murder of Countess Teresa Lubienska - The story of a remarkable lady who was an inmate at Ravensbrück and suffered throughout the war, only to be murdered at a London Underground station many years later.

Issue 156

ISSUE No. 156 (Code A156) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE BOMBING OF DUBLIN - On the night of May 30/31, 1941, four Luftwaffe bombers, on their way to attack Liverpool, drifted off track and by mistake bombed the city of Dublin. David Mitchelhill-Green tells the story of the raid in which over 40 people lost their lives and more than 100 were injured. War Film - Is Paris Burning? (French original title: Paris, Brûle-t'il?) released in 1966, tells the story of the liberation of the French capital in August 1944. Karel Margry takes us through the making of the film. Lyndon B. Johnson's Silver Star - David Mitchelhill-Green explains how the then future President of the United States was controversially awarded the Silver Star. A Night at the Acropolis - George Pararas-Carayannis tells the story of two young students (Manolis Glezos and Lakis Santas) who decided to do something about the swastika banner placed at the tip of the Acropolis by German invaders. As a symbolic act of defiance they set out to climb the Acropolis at night to take down the flag and destroy it.

Issue 157

ISSUE No. 157 (Code A157) — Now with Colour Comparisons

AUSCHWITZ - The most infamous of all the Nazi concentration camps has come to symbolise the atrocities committed by the Third Reich. Starting out as a detention camp, primarily for Polish political prisoners, it grew to become the principal killing centre set up for the mass murder of the European Jews. This moving story, told by Yisrael Gutman, highlights the terrible atrocities suffered by its inmates and guides us through the everyday working of the camp with comparisons of Auschwitz today. The 70th Anniversary of Stars and Stripes - This is the story of the US Army's own newspaper, first published during the First World War. In 1942 — 70 years ago this year — its publication was re-started in London for American troops.

Issue 158

ISSUE No. 158 (Code A158) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE SIEGE OF WARSAW 1939 - On September 8, 1939, one week into the Nazi invasion of Poland, German armoured troops reached the gates of Warsaw. However, a determined garrison awaited the enemy invader and the Poles were able to stave off two consecutive German attempts to take the capital by armoured attack. Thus began a campaign that would last for three weeks and subject the inhabitants of the city to a ruthless campaign of aerial bombardment and heavy artillery shelling. Campo Prigionieri di Guerra 57 - From the Autumn of 1941 to September 1943 there existed near Udine, in the far north-eastern corner of upper Italy, a prisoner of war camp which was originally set up to house Yugoslav, Albanian and Greek prisoners from Italy's war in the Balkans. Soon it became the main camp for Australian and New Zealand NCOs and aother ranks captured in North Africa. The story is told by Jeffrey Plowman and Stefano Di Giusto. From the Editor - A round-up and update on previous stories from After the Battle.

Issue 159

ISSUE No. 159 (Code A159) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE BATTLE FOR THE REICHSWALD - On February 8, 1945, the First Canadian Army, along with the British XXX Corps (operating under Canadian command) launched Operation 'Veritable', a massive offensive designed to conquer the northern half of the German Rhineland and obtain positions favourable for a later assault across the Rhine. Western Desert Battlefield Tours - Steve Hamilton has been exploring the Western Desert long before battlefield tour companies even existed. After the Battle takes a look at this remarkable operation prior to the launch of our new book The Desert War Then and Now. The International Tracing Service at Arolsen - The upheaval caused by Germany transporting hundreds of thousands of civilians from one country to another right across Europe presented a huge problem for the Allies in 1945. In January 1946 the Central Tracing Bureau was established under the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. We tell how this was set up and run, and the effect it has had on many family's since. The Kingsclere Massacre - Matthew Spicer recounts how a group of American soldiers based at Kingsclere in Berkshire brought murder and mayhem to this English village. The Desert War Then and Now - Jean Paul Pallud introduces his latest masterpiece in the form of this 592-page book published by After the Battle, which covers the campaign in North Africa from 1940 to 1943.

Issue 160

ISSUE No. 160 (Code A160) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE NAZI BÜCKEBERG HARVEST FESTIVAL - The Reichserntedankfest (Reich Harvest Thanksgiving Festival) on the Bückeberg near the town of Hameln was one of the largest annual mass meetings organised by the Third Reich, comparable only to the Nazi party rallies at Nuremberg. Karel Margry tells us how this was designed by the Propaganda Ministry as a way to draw the farmers and peasants of Germany closer to the Nazi regime. Exploring the Crash Site of Ian Smith - Dave Cooper tells us of his quest to find and visit the site in north-western Italy where the then future Prime Minister of Rhodesia, Ian Smith, had crashed in his Spitfire on June 22, 1944. Okunoshima: Japan's Poison Gas Arsenal - From 1929 to 1945, the Imperial Japanese Army operated a top-secret poison gas plant on Okunoshima a small island in Japan's Inland Sea in Hiroshima Prefecture. David Mitchellhill-Green tells us the full story. The Victors - Trevor Popple takes us through the film which was the directional debut of producer and screenwriter Carl Foreman.

Issue 161

ISSUE No. 161 (Code A161) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE BATTLE FOR METZ - In the autumn of 1944, the US Third Army fought a series of difficult and costly battles for Metz, the capital of the Lorraine region in north-eastern France. Jean Paul Pallud takes us through this absorbing story. Hirohito's Underground Headquarters - David Mitchelhill-Green takes a look at the subterranean tunnel systems at the remote town of Matsushiro which was intended to serve as residence for Emperor Hirohito and his wife as well as a Japanese central command post. Fires Were Started - Trevor Popple looks at this wartime film about the Auxiliary Fire Service which was filmed using real members of the Fire Brigade.

Issue 162

ISSUE No. 162 (Code A162) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE BATTLE FOR BUNA - An in-depth account of the Battle of Buna in New Guinea where a bitter battle was fought from November 1942 until January 1943 by a combined US-Australian force. Holleischen Concentration Camp - Carl Barwise tells the story of this satellite camp to Flossenburg in Czechoslovakia which grew to hold up to 1,000 inmates. Dornier Recovery - The story of the recent raising of a virtually intact Dornier from the English Channel that had been shot down in the Battle of Britain in August 1940 as told by Chris Goss. From the Editor - A round-up and update on previous stories from After the Battle.

Issue 163

ISSUE No. 163 (Code A163) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE SIEGFRIED LINE - Karel Margry give us an in-depth look at the German 'Westwall' defence system built between 1936 and 1940. This Special Issue is dedicated to a truly remarkable piece of history.

Issue 164

ISSUE No. 164 (Code A164) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE SARAJEVO ASSASSINATION - Karel Margry describes the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. An event which precipitated a political and military crisis between the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy and the neighbouring Kingdom of Serbia, which within a month mushroomed into the catastrophe of the First World War. The Woolwich Arsenal Parachute Mine - In the summer of 1941, Royal Engineer bomb disposal companies were called in to give assistance to the Navy in the recovery of one of the Thames Haven mines. Chris Ransted tells us the story in full detail. The First to be Killed in Action - Jean Paul Pallud traces the places and identities of the first men to be killed in both World Wars with an amazing revelation concerning the first soldier to be killed in the Second World War.

Issue 165

ISSUE No. 165 (Code A165) — Now with Colour Comparisons

AIRBORNE RAID ON TITO'S HEADQUARTERS - Karel Margry describes the events of Operation 'Rösselsprung' (Knight's Move in chess) where SS-Fallschirmjäger-Bataillon 500 executed a surprise airborne attack in an attempt to capture or kill Field-Marshal Tito in northern Bosnia. Britain's First World War Defences - Victor Smith, Alan Anstee and Simon Mason reveal the stories behind some fascinating First World War home defence works on the Isle of Sheppey and the Kent mainland immediately to its south. The Exploits of an Aussie Bomber Crew - In March 1943, Denis Kelly arrived at the No. 5 Group heavy bomber base of RAF Bomber Command at Waddington, Lincolnshire. Now the last man standing from his former crew, in May 2014 Denis journeyed to Europe with his son Denis Junior to retrace his footsteps and remember . . . this is the remarkable story of the crew and their fate.

Issue 166

ISSUE No. 166 (Code A166) — Now with Colour Comparisons

STALINGRAD - In this Special Issue of After the Battle, Mark Holoboski and Alexander Trofimov explain how the battle of Stalingrad formed one of the decisive turning points in the Second World War. The advance of the German armies to the great city on the Volga in August 1942; the stubborn and heroic defence of the besieged and shell-battered city against overwhelming German superiority by the Soviet 62nd Army in September-November; and the subsequent encirclement and demise of the 6. Armee in the winter of 1942-43, ending in total capitulation on February 2, 1943, decisively turned the scale of the conflict on the Eastern Front. After Stalingrad there could be only one end to the war.

Issue 167

ISSUE No. 167 (Code A167) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE BATTLE AT CAMP BOWMANVILLE —: David Mitchelhill-Green tells the story of this Prisoner of War camp which was the venue for the only skirmish on Canadian soil during the Second World War, when a 3-day riot broke out which became known as the ‘Battle of Bowmanville’. This incident had the potential to have worsened an already tense international situation over the accepted treatment of prisoners of war. Mary Churchill’s Anti-Aircraft Battery — Lady Mary Soames, daughter of Winston Churchill, tells her story of the time she spent manning various Anti-Aircraft batteries in and around London and how having such a famous father could sometimes prove difficult for her to perform her duties. Return to the Battle of the Bulge — Jean Paul Pallud revisits the scene of this famous battlefield . . . 70 years on. The Battle of Singling — On December 6, 1944, a small tank/infantry force of the US 4th Armored Division attacked the tiny village of Singling in north-western France. Karel Margry explains what happened next. Britain Remembers: 1914-2014 — To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the start of the First World War, the Tower of London’s moat was transformed into a sea of red when 888,246 ceramic poppies — one for each British and Commonwealth casualty of the war — were planted. We tell this remarkable story of how the idea was formed and took place in this historic landmark.

Issue 168

ISSUE No. 168 (Code A168) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE BATTLE FOR BREST —: In a major article, Jean Paul Pallud describes how in the first week of August 1944, American armoured forces reached the outskirts of the port city of Brest, beginning a siege that would last for six weeks and ultimately involved three American infantry divisions. The Ministry of Food Home Guard — During the war, there existed a unique unit within the Home Guard. This eventually became known as the 11th (Ministry of Food) Battalion, Denbighshire Home Guard. Patrick Hargreaves explains. German Concentration Camps Factual Survey — Karel Margry takes us through the story of this powerful documentary film, shot in the summer of 1945, as the full horror uncovered by the Allied liberation armies from the East and West is shown. My Return to the Siegfried Line — Editor-in-Chief of After the Battle, Winston Ramsey, takes us back to this unique piece of wartime history, and in doing so, retracing his own footsteps when he first visited it in March 1969.

Issue 169

ISSUE No. 169 (Code A169) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE BATTLE OF ANCONA —: On July 18, 1944, after an advance of 140 kilometres in four weeks and a final enveloping operation, forces of the Polish II Corps captured the port city of Ancona. Sergio Sparapani tells the story. Lost in a Foreign Field — Ian Marchant tells us how finally the graves of three RAF airmen were recognised 75 years to the day after they had died in a largely forgotten battle in France. From the Editor — A round-up and update on previous stories from After the Battle. Japan's Worst POW Camp — Of the many prisoner-of-war camps set up by Imperial Japan during the Second World War, the one at the small city of Naoetsu in central Japan ranks as one of the most notorious, some saying it was the worst of all. David Mitchelhill-Green explains how it received this notorious reputation. The Execution of Sergeant Siffleet — Gail Ramsey tells the shocking story of the execution of Leonard Siffleet, a 27-year-old commando of the Second Australian Imperial Force. This terrible act was captured on camera and became one of the most confronting images of the war in the Pacific.

Issue 170

ISSUE No. 170 (Code A170) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE VICHY GOVERNMENT — From June 1940 to November 1942 the unoccupied part of France was administered by a government headed by Maréchal Philippe Pétain, the venerated hero of Verdun. When the German Army crossed the Demarcation Line in November 1942 Pétain slowly receded into the background as Premier Pierre Laval and other more-radical collaborationists came to the fore, maintaining an increasingly hated regime until the liberation of France in the summer of 1944. However, Pétain remained popular, being seen by many as the symbol of French unity. Jean Paul Pallud tells this fascinating story. The Capture of Saarbrücken — On March 20, 1945 the US 70th Infantry Division captured the city of Saarbrücken, capital of the Saar industrial and coalmining region and one of the mainstays of Nazi Germany’s war economy. Karel Margry takes us through this battle that lasted over six months. The Death of a Great Escaper — Winston Ramsey tells of the plight of Squadron Leader Roger Bushell, the Commanding Officer of No. 92 Squadron, who was shot down on May 23, 1940. He became an inveterate escaper and late, as ‘Big X’ at Stalag Luft 3 at Sagan, he master-minded the ‘Great Escape’ of 76 prisoners on the night of March 24/25, 1944. He lost his life with a fellow escapee, Frenchman Bernard Scheidhauer, who had left France in October 1940 to join the Royal Air Force and had earned his wings by April 1942.

Issue 171

ISSUE No. 171 (Code A171) — Now with Colour Comparisons

AMERICANS ACROSS THE MOSELLE — In early September 1944, troops of the Third Army reached the Moselle river in north-eastern France along a 120-kilometre-wide front. Their objective was to cross and capture the town of Nancy, the river crossing and battle being described and illustrated with comparison photos by Jean Paul Pallud. The US Pacific Dishonoured Plot — Colonel Charles A. Jones explains how US servicemen executed in the Pacific Theater for capital crimes (including Edward Leonski, the ‘Brown-Out Strangler’ in Melbourne, Australia) are buried in named graves -- some on the island of Oahu at Schofield Barracks and elsewhere in the Philippines -- whereas the American European dishonoured plot with its unidentified numbered graves is closed to the public. The Catterick Bridge Explosion — Barrie Morris describes the day when an ammunition train exploded in the north of England, leaving many dead and injured. Führerhauptquartier ‘Wehrwolf’ — Located just north of the town of Vinnitsa in the Ukraine, this was the easternmost of all Hitler’s headquarters. Martin Bogaert and Andrew Shvachko tell the story of its construction and explore the site to show us what remains today.

Issue 172

ISSUE No. 172 (Code A172) — Now with Colour Comparisons

OPERATION 'BLOCKBUSTER' — Colonel Charles P. Stacey tells us how on February 26, 1945, having fought its way through the dreaded Reichswald forest, the First Canadian Army launched Operation 'Blockbuster', a continuation of the massed offensive aimed at securing the Rhineland as far south as Xanten and linking up with the Americans coming up from the south. Major Fred Tilston, VC — On Thursday, March 1, 1945, at the height of the battle for the Hochwald Gap, Major Fred Tilston of the Canadian Essex Scottish launched his under-strength C Company into an attack on the enemy-held Hochwald forest. Showing extreme courage, Tilston led his men across 400 metres of fire-swept open ground and into the German positions. Despite being wounded twice, he personally knocked out an enemy machine-gun nest. Having survived this and further actions, he was awarded the VC. The story is told by W. Denis Whitaker and Shelagh Whitaker. Prisoner of War at Brest — Lt. Paul R. Stevenson tells his remarkable story. Having been captured by German Fallschirmjäger just north of the city, he was taken inside encircled Brest, spending 20 days in a small prisoner of war camp before making a daring escape with three other US soldiers across the water back to American lines.

Issue 173

ISSUE No. 173 (Code A173) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE INVASION OF ELBA ISLAND — The Italian island of Elba has the rare distinction of having been invaded twice in the space of nine months during the Second World War. It was an important location as it guarded the sea passage between Corsica and the Italian mainland. Jean Paul Pallud explains its story in fine detail. Irena Sendler — During the Nazi occupation of Poland, an underground organisation known as Zegota — or Rada Pomocy Zydom (Council for Aid to Jews) — managed to smuggle out some 2,500 Jewish children from the Warsaw Ghetto, providing them with false identity documents and shelter, and thus rescuing them from certain death. The driving force and leading figure behind the clandestine operation was Irena Sendler, a 33-year-old social worker and head of the organisation's Children's Section. Anna Mieszkowska tells the story of this remarkable woman. The Case of PFC Fred W. Ashley — This is the story of the mysterious disappearance of Pfc Fred W. Ashley, a seasoned soldier belonging to the 1st Platoon of Troop C of the 2nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (Mechanised). He was killed in southern Czechoslovakia on May 4, 1945 — just four days before the end of the war — and although his remains were recovered from a field grave a few weeks later, and were identified by the US graves registrations specialists in August 1945, they somehow got lost and today this young soldier is still listed as missing. Manuel F. Van Eyck tells us his sad story. The Battle of the Somme Remembered — This is the story of a live tribute by the National Theatre to mark the 100th anniversary of the first day of the Somme, using 1,400 actors to make a silent vigil across the country acting as 'ghost' soldiers. This was a striking reminder to commuters in another century of the price paid then for what we enjoy today.

Issue 174

ISSUE No. 174 (Code A174) — Now with Colour Comparisons

THE BATTLE OF THE VERCORS — On June 8, 1944, following BBC messages on June 5 calling for the French Resistance to prepare for action, the Maquis in the Vercors rose in rebellion, mobilising some 4,000 men on the plateau, and planning to move them into action as soon as an Allied landing occurred in Southern France. On July 3 the insurgents even proclaimed a Free-French Republic of Vercors. To deal with this uprising, on July 21 the Germans launched the largest operation ever conducted against the Resistance in Western Europe, attacking with airborne and mountain troops to destroy these insurgent groups. Jean Paul Pallud tells the story. Saving Private Ryan Revisited — Jean Paul Pallud reveals more about the history behind the making of this groundbreaking war film which he discovered after searching his wartime photographic records. The Dissolution of the Luftwaffe — Following the final defeat of Germany the Allied governments decided that she must not be allowed to rise again as a military power, the thinking being that despite the efforts of the victors after the First World War, Germany had been able to recover so completely that in a relatively short period she was able to unleash another world war within 25 years. This is the story of the complete disarming of the Luftwaffe. From the Editor — A roundup and update on previous stories from After the Battle.

Issue 175

ISSUE No. 175 (Code A175) — Now with Colour Comparisons

MATILDA TANKS ON CRETE — During the battle for Crete, which lasted from May 20 to June 1, 1941, the British, Dominion and Greek forces defending the island had very little armoured support. Jeffrey Plowman, Michael Grieve and Mark Wilson tell the story of how six and eventually nine Matilda Mk II tanks were used to defend this key strategic position in the eastern Mediterranean. The Battle for Salamaua — Phil Bradley tells us how from January to September 1943, Australian and American forces in Papua New Guinea fought a difficult and bitter battle with the Japanese Imperial Army for possession of Salamaua, a port town and commercial centre on the Huon Gulf on the island’s northern coast. Wellingtons WWII Harbour Defences — To defend its capital Wellington against enemy aggression, New Zealand before and during the Second World War built a series of coastal gun batteries, anti-aircraft batteries and radar stations. Jeffrey Plowman explains. Massacre at Hannover — In early May 1945, the Allied Military Government in the city of Hannover discovered a mass grave in the Seelhorst municipal cemetery containing the bodies of 154 Russian prisoners of war and slave labourers. They had been murdered by the local Gestapo on April 6 — four days before the Allied capture of the city. Karel Margry recounts what took place.